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Biological control agents

Aphelinus-A

Target pests: Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani; potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus spp.

Product description: Aphelinus-A is supplied as parasitised aphids at pupal stages (black mummies) in plastic vials. A minimum of 1000 Aphelinus wasps should emerge from each vial. Some adults may emerge in transit.

Crop usage: Aphelinus-A can be used in all crops where target aphids are pests. Crops that benefit from Aphelinus-A include greenhouse vegetables (capsicum, tomato, eggplant, lettuce), ornamentals (chrysanthemum, roses, gerbera) and herbs. It can withstand higher temperatures than Aphidius species.

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Aphelinus

Aphidius-C

Target pests: Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

Product description: Aphidius-C is supplied as parasitised aphid pupae (mummies) in plastic vials. A minimum of 500 Aphidius wasps should emerge in each vial. Some adult wasps may emerge in transit.

Crop usage: Aphidius-C can be used in all crops where target aphids are pests. Crops that benefit from Aphidius-C include capsicum, tomato, cucumber, ornamentals and herbs, and some field crops such as corn and cotton.

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Aphidius

Aphytis

Target pests: Armoured scale insects, including red scale (Aonidiella aurantii), oriental scale (Aonidiella orientalis) and oleander scale (Aspidiotus nerii)

Product description: Aphytis is supplied in cardboard cups each containing 10,000+ adult wasps ready for release. Parasites should be released immediately upon receival by opening the cups within the orchard and distributing approximately 2.5 cups per hectare of orchard.

Crop usage: Citrus is the main crop attacked by red scale, but other hosts include passionfruit, olives, walnuts, roses and ivy. Papaws and a wide range of ornamentals, such as palms and ferns, are hosts for oriental and oleander scales. Aphytis wasps prefer healthy, well-foliaged trees, which help to provide shelter from extremes of environmental conditions.

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Aphytis

Cucumeris

Target pests: Thrips, broad mite, eriophyid mites, tarsonemid mites. It feeds on all active stages of mites, but only on first-stage larvae of thrips

Product description: Cucumeris is supplied in a loose, vermiculite-based medium in punnets containing 40,000 predatory mites per litre. The material should be diluted on receipt with more vermiculite (3 L to every 1 L) to aid in even distribution through the crop.

Crop usage: Cucumeris can be used in a variety of crops, including vegetables (cucumber, capsicum, eggplant), ornamentals (gerbera, roses), strawberries, herbs, and bulbs and onions in storage. Cucumeris is particularly useful in capsicum and eggplants and some flower crops, because pollen provides a source of food to build up high populations. It does not establish well in tomato crops.

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Cucumeris

Dalotia

Target pests: Fungus gnats (eggs and immature stages), Bradysia spp.; shore flies (eggs and larvae), Scatella spp.; and thrips (larvae and pupae) at ground level.

Product description: Dalotia is supplied in a cocopeat and vermiculite medium that contains approximately 500 individuals of mixed life stages. Food granules sufficient to maintain larvae for a few days are also present.

Crop usage: Most greenhouse crops are suitable for usage of Dalotia, including vegetables, ornamentals, pot plants, and propagation areas. They prefer a warm, humid environment, but will adjust to a variety of crop situations and media. They are particularly useful in capillary matting and the ends of hydroponic guttering where algae grow and shore flies, moth flies and other nuisance flies breed.

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Dalotia

Encarsia

Target pests: Greenhouse whitefly; silverleaf whitefly

Product description: Encarsia is supplied as parasitised greenhouse whitefly scales glued onto small cards. Each card should produce at least 100 wasps within 1-7 days. For pest hotspots, they may also be supplied as loose scales, which are best shaken into small boxes attached to plants, or sprinkles onto grow slabs beneath the foliage.

Crop usage: Encarsia is effective against greenhouse whitefly in a broad range of greenhouse vegetable, ornamental and herb crops, including tomato, cucumber, capsicum, chrysanthemum, rose and gerbera. In summer and in warmer climates they may also be useful in outdoor nursery stock and gardens. It is less effective against silverleaf whitefly where rates need to be doubled for best effect unless there is a mixed population with greenhouse whitefly.

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Encarsia

Eretmocerus-W

Target pests: Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

Product description: Eretmocerus-W is supplied as parasitised greenhouse whitefly scales glued onto small cards. Each card should produce at least 100 wasps within 1-7 days. For pest hot-spots, they may also be supplied as loose scales, which are best shaken into small boxes attached to plants, or sprinkled onto foliage, avoiding wetting.

Crop usage: Eretmocerus-W is a new product effective against greenhouse whitefly. It has not yet been evaluated in all crops, but target crops include greenhouse vegetable (tomato, eggplant, cucumber, capsicum), ornamental (chrysanthemum, rose, gerbera), strawberry and herbs. In summer and in warmer climates they may also be useful in outdoor crops, nursery stock and gardens. It is not effective against silverleaf whitefly.

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Hypoaspis-A

Hypoaspis-A

Target pests: Bulb mites; thrips pupae; fungus gnats

Product description: Hypoaspis-A is supplied in a peat and vermiculite medium in quantities of 10,000/litre containing all stages of the mites.

Crop usage: Hypoaspis-A is used against bulb mites in bulbous crops such as lilliums and freesia. For bulbs, they may be used in both storage and propagation phases. Hypoaspis-A also provides supplementary control of thrips species which drop to the ground to pupate, including onion thrips, western flower thrips, and plague thrips, complimenting use of Cucumeris on foliage, particularly in roses and gerberas.

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Hypoaspis-A

Hypoaspis-M

Target pests: Fungus gnat larvae (mostly small larvae); thrips pupae; soil mealybugs

Product description: Hypoaspis-M is packaged in a pasteurised peat and vermiculite mix and sold by the litre in punnets or bags. Each litre contains at least 15,000 mites of all mobile stages.

Crop usage: Hypoaspis-M is suitable for use in all crops infested with fungus gnats, including bedding plants, seedlings, propagation beds, and vegetable and ornamental crops whether in pots, bags or beds. Hypoaspis-M also provides supplementary control of thrips species which drop to the ground to pupate, including onion thrips, western flower thrips, and plague thrips, complementing use of Cucumeris on foliage. They have also been layed successfully in reptile/spider enclosures for parasitic mite control.

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Hypoaspis-M

Neoseiulus-W

Target pests: Spider mites (two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae; bean spider mite, T. ludeni); eriophyid mites; tarsonemid mites (broad mite, cyclamen mite).

Product description: Neoseiulus-W is supplied on leaves, or in a loose, vermiculite-based medium in punnets containing 10,000 mites/L.

Crop usage: Neoseiulus-W can be used in a variety of crops, including fruit tree crops such as pome/stonefruit, vegetables (cucumber, capsicum, eggplant), ornamentals (chrysanthemum, rose, gerbera), strawberry and herbs. It does not establish easily in tomato crops. It tolerates hot/dry conditions and is fairly hardy to a range of pesticides.

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Neoseiulus

Occidentalis

Target pests: Two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae), European red spider mite (Panonychus citri), bean spider mite (Tetranychus ludeni)

Product description: Occidentalis is delivered as mixed life-stages on green bean leaves. There are approximately 100 predators on each trifoliate leaf.

Crop usage: Occidentalis is primarily used in pome and stone fruit orchards. It may also be used in field vegetables and greenhouse crops including strawberries and roses during the summer months as it tolerates low humidity and high temperatures, and is resistant to several miticides, and insecticides.

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Occidentalis